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How can I configure PKI in a lab on Windows Server 2016 - Part 5



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This series is comprised of different parts, listed below.

In part 1 of this series, you configured your LAB for a 2 tier PKI hierarchy running on Windows Server 2016. You used PowerShell to create some virtual machines, and then installed Windows Server 2016,  Windows 10 Enterprise version 1803 and optionally Smoothwall 3.1 before configuring the IP address scheme and Computer Names on the virtual machines. Finally you configured ADDS on DC01 so that you have a working Domain Controller for the rest of this LAB. In part 2 you installed and did the initial configuration on the Standalone Offline Root CA. In part 3 you prepared the HTTP Web Server for CDP and AIA Publication and you created a DNS record for the publicly available web server.

In part 4 you performed post configuration on the Standalone Offline Root CA to set certificate revocation list (CRL) period registry settings using CertUtil, and then enabled object access Auditing and finally, you configured three locations for the Authority Information Access (AIA) and four locations for the Certificate revocation list Distribution Point (CDP), again using CertUtil. In this part you will install and do initial configuration on the Enterprise Issuing CA. This is a long blog post so make sure you've got lots of coffee or beer handy (depending on your preference).

Step 1. Add EntAdmin user to groups

We'll be using a special user called EntAdmin (an Enterprise Admin and a member of Cert Publishers) for some tasks on the IssuingCA computer, but before doing so, we need to add that user as a member of the Enterprise Admins group and the Cert Publishers on the domain controller. You could do so simply by issuing the following in Windows PowerShell ISE on DC01.

Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity "Enterprise Admins" -Members "EntAdmin"
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity "Cert Publishers" -Members "EntAdmin"

Alternatively you can run this script in Windows PowerShell ISE as windowsnoob\Administrator on DC01.

Create Users Usergroups and OUs in AD.ps1

adding entadmin.png

Step 2. join IssuingCA to the domain

When you installed the Issuing CA virtual machine (#11_IssuingCA) in part 1, it was workgroup joined. To join the domain do as follows. Logon to the web server virtual machine as Administrator. In Windows File Explorer, right click on This PC and choose Properties. Click on Change Settings beside Computer name, domain and workgroup settings. You can follow the instructions in Part 3, Step 1 for how to join a domain manually or use the JoinDomain.ps1 PowerShell script here.

JoinDomain.ps1

1. Copy the script to C:\Scripts on the IssuingCA server.

2. Edit the variables (lines 16-18) as desired before running.

3. Start Windows PowerShell ISE as Administrator and run the script by clicking on the green triangle.

Note: After running the script, the computer will restart automatically.

Step 3. Add EntAdmin as a local admin on IssuingCA

Next, logon to the IssuingCA domain joined computer as windowsnoob\administrator. Once logged in, start compmgmt.msc and add EntAdmin as to the Local Administrators group by expanding System Tools, Local Users or Groups, Administrators, Members tab and clicking Add, Enter EntAdmin as the user.

Alternatively use this PowerShell command to do it for you on the IssuingCA computer while logged in as windowsnoob\administrator.

Add-LocalGroupMember -Group Administrators -Member windowsnoob\EntAdmin

Press Enter. The output of the above command is shown below.

adding entadmin as local admin on issuingca.png

The user is now listed as a member of Local Administrators group on IssuingCA.

local admin.png

After doing the above, logoff (Sign out) from IssuingCA.

Step 4. Create an OID

Before creating the CAPolicy.inf file in the next step, we should use our own OID rather than the default Microsoft one (OID= 1.2.3.4.1455.67.89.5). I'm using a PowerShell script found here for that purpose (1).

createOID.ps1

Step 5. Create a CAPolicy.inf file for the Enterprise Issuing CA.

Before installing the Issuing CA, you should create a CAPolicy.inf to define 'default' settings for CA templates, some of these settings cannot be changed later and you want them in place before creating any certificates on the Issuing CA.

On the #11_IssuingCA virtual machine (IssuingCA), login as windowsnoob\Entadmin using the password specified.

Open an administrative command prompt and type the following:

notepad C:\Windows\CAPolicy.inf

and press ENTER, when prompted to create new file, click Yes. Paste in the following text into the new CAPolicy.inf file.
  

[Version]
Signature="$Windows NT$"

[PolicyStatementExtension]
Policies=InternalPolicy

[InternalPolicy]
OID=1.2.3.4.1455.67.89.5
URL=http://pki.windows-noob.com/cps.txt

[Certsrv_Server]
RenewalKeyLength=2048
RenewalValidityPeriod=Years
RenewalValidityPeriodUnits=10
LoadDefaultTemplates=0
AlternateSignatureAlgorithm=0 

Once done, paste in the OID created in Step 4 and then save the file as C:\Windows\CAPolicy.inf.

Note: The OID in the CAPolicy.inf pasted above uses Microsoft's own OID, you should use the one generated in Step 4 or obtain one from here (2).

Step 6. Publish the Root CA Certificate and CRL

In this step, you will copy CER and CRT files from the Standalone Offline Root CA virtual machine to the IssuingCA virtual machine before publishing the Root CA Certificate and CRL. I'm showing you a few methods how to copy the files (PowerShell or manually) but you are doing so using a 1GB VHDX disk. The reason for this is you should not connect the StandAlone Offline Root CA to the network.

On your Hyper-V host (the computer that you use to host this LAB), run the following PowerShell script (after adjusting the variables as necessary) to create a 1GB VHDX disk which we will use to copy CER and CRL files between the StandAlone Offline Root CA (RootCA) to the IssuingCA virtual machines.

Note: The first time your run this script it will automatically attach the VHDX to the #11_RootCA virtual machine. You may need to open disk administrator on that virtual machine and change the disk to Online before use.

Download the PowerShell script - create_PKI_vhdx.ps1

Note: Before taking any new snapshots (checkpoints) of your virtual machines, please ensure that you have first offlined the PKI disk and then removed it from the respective vm's.

create_pki_vhdx.png

Logon to the StandAlone Offline Root CA (RootCA) as Administrator, and if necessary, change the just attached vhdx disk to Online using Disk Management.

online disk.png

Using a command prompt, copy the StandAlone Offline Root CA Certificate (ROOTCA_windows noob Root CA.crt) and Root CA CRL (windows noob Root CA.crl) files from the C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll directory on RootCA server to the VHDX removable media (probably E:\).

copy C:\Windows\System32\CertSrv\CertEnroll\*.cr* E:\

copying files.png

Now, using Disk Management, set the PKI disk to Offline

set offline.png

Using the virtual machine settings GUI for #11_RootCA (RootCA), remove the previously attached PKI disk.

remove PKI disk.png

or alternatively, use the following PowerShell (on the Hyper-v host), where $TargetVM="#11_RootCA"

Remove-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $TargetVM -ControllerType SCSI -ControllerNumber 1 -ControllerLocation 1

On the #11_IssuingCA virtual machine, use the Virtual Machine GUI settings to attach the PKI disk, or use Powershell where $TargetVM="#11_IssuingCA" and $path=the path to the VHDX file

Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $TargetVM -ControllerType SCSI -ControllerNumber 1 -ControllerLocation 1 -Path $path

On the #11_IssuingCA virtual machine, login as windowsnoob\EntAdmin and using Disk Management, change the PKI disk to Online.

Issue the following command as windowsnoob\EntAdmin where E:\ is the path to the CER and CRL files.

certutil -f -dspublish "E:\ROOTCA_windows noob Root CA.crt" RootCA 

Press Enter. The output of the above command is shown below. You should see "Certificate added to DS store".

certificate added to the store.png

Next, issue the following command as windowsnoob\EntAdmin where E:\ is the path to the CER and CRL files.

certutil -f -dspublish "E:\windows noob Root CA.crl" RootCA 

Press Enter. The output of the above command is shown below. You should see "Base CRL added to DS store".

Base CRL added to DS store.png

Using Windows File Explorer on IssuingCA as windowsnoob\Entadmin, copy the CR* files on E:\ (or whatever drive letter the PKI disk is mounted as) to \\webserver.windowsnoob.lab.local\CertEnroll

copy cr files to webserver.png

On the IssuingCA, to add the windows noob Root CA Certificate and CRL to the IssuingCA local store, run the following command from an administrative command prompt as windowsnoob\EntAdmin. Ensure that you substitute the correct drive letter of your removable media (for E:) in the command below:

certutil -addstore -f root "E:\ROOTCA_windows noob Root CA.crt"

Press Enter. The output of the above command is shown below. You should see "CertUtil: -addstore command completed successfully".

certutil local store.png

Next, run the following command from an administrative command prompt as windowsnoob\EntAdmin. Ensure that you substitute the correct drive letter of your removable media (for E:) in the command below:

certutil -addstore -f root "E:\windows noob Root CA.crl"

Press Enter. The output of the above command is shown below. You should see "CertUtil: -addstore command completed successfully".

certutil crl addstore.png

Step 7. Install the Subordinate Issuing CA

imageproxy.php?img=&key=588032a05702b0f0 Now that you've created the CAPolicy.inf file and published the CRT and CRL files (from the StandAlone Offline Root CA) to Active Directory, copied them to the Webserver CertEnroll folder and to the local store on the Issuing CA, you are ready to install Active Directory Certificate Services (on the Issuing CA).

To do so, open Server Manager and select Add Roles and Features, on the Before You Begin page select Next. On the Select Server Roles page select Active Directory Certificate Services and then click Next, if prompted to Add features that are required for Active Directory Certificate Services, click Add features.

On the Introduction to Active Directory Certificate Services page, click Next. On the Select Role Services page (shown below), select Certification Authority and Certification Authority Web Enrollment. If you see the Add Roles Wizard, click Add Required Role Services. Click Next.

adding adcs to issuingCA.png

Continue through the wizard and click on Install. Leave the wizard open until the feature installation completes successfully, then click Close.

Install.png

In Server Manager, click on Configure Active Directory Certificate Services (yellow exclamation mark).

configure active directory certificate services.png

Ensure that your credentials are windowsnoob\EntAdmin click Next.

credentials.png

On the Select roles to configure, ensure that both Certification Authority and Certification Authority Web Authority are selected. On the Specify the setup type of the CA page, ensure that Enterprise is selected, and then click Next.

Note: The Enterprise option will be greyed out if you are not logged on as Enterprise Admin (windowsnoob\EntAdmin) or do not have local administrator permission.

enterprise ca.png

On the Specify the type of CA page, select Subordinate CA, and then click Next.

subordinate ca selected.png

On the Set Up Private Key page, ensure that Create a new private key is selected, and then click Next. Ensure that Sha256 is selected  on the Specify the cryptographic options page, then click Next.

specify the cryptographic options.png

Note: When installing in a production environment, the CSP, Hash Algorithm and Key length selected must support application compatibility requirements of your organization.

On the Specify the name of the CA page, clear the existing entry for Common name for this CA box, and enter windows noob Issuing CA, then click Next.

windows noob issuing ca.png

On the Request certificate from a parent CA page, select Save a certificate request to file and manually send it later to a parent CA option then click Next

save a certificate request to file.png

Continue through the wizard and finally click on Configure in the Confirm Installation Selections page, finally, click on Close at the Configuration Succeeded screen. Take note of the warning,  it is expected.

configuration succeeded.png

Step 8. Copy the certificate request file to the StandAlone Offline Root CA

Run the following command from an administrative command prompt as windowsnoob\EntAdmin on the IssuingCA computer. Ensure that you substitute the correct drive letter of your removable media (for E:) in the command below:

copy c:\IssuingCA.windowsnoob.lab.local_windowsnoob-ISSUINGCA-CA.req E:\

1 files copied.png

Next, take the PKI disk offline in Disk Management on the IssuingCA

set offline.png

Next, Remove the PKI disk from the IssuingCA virtual machine using the GUI settings or use the PowerShell commands shown earlier to do it.

remove from issuingca.png

And insert the PKI disk into the StandAlone Offline Root CA virtual machine, then make if Online in Disk Management (on RootCA).

Step 9. Submit the Request and Issue Fabrikam Issuing CA Certificate

On the StandAlone Offline Root CA, login as Administrator and use the following command in an Administrative command prompt where E:\ is the PKI disk

certreq -submit E:\IssuingCA.windowsnoob.lab.local_windowsnoob-ISSUINGCA-CA.req

When prompted which CA to use, select the windows noob Root CA and click OK.

windows noob root ca.png

Take note of the certificate requestID

certificate requestID.png

On the StandAlone Offline Root CA, start CertSrv.msc and click on Pending requests, right click the matching RequestID, choose All Tasks then select Issue.

issue.png

Return to the administrative command prompt to accept the issued certificate by running the following command. Make sure you are using the correct drive letter for your removable media for E: as well as the correct RequestID for 2:

Note: Notice the .crt in the command line below, you must make sure it's typed correctly.

certreq -retrieve 2 E:\IssuingCA.windowsnoob.lab.local_windowsnoob-ISSUINGCA-CA.crt

When prompted which CA to use, select the windows noob Root CA and click OK. If everything went ok you'll see output like the below.

certificate retrieved (issued) Issued resubmitted by rootca administrator.png

If you now do a DIR on the PKI disk you'll see new files have been generated.

files received.png

Next, take the PKI disk offline in Disk Management on the StandAlone Offline Root CA

set offline.png

Finally, Remove the PKI disk from the StandAlone Offline Root CA virtual machine using the GUI settings or use the PowerShell commands shown earlier to do it.

remove PKI disk.png

Step 10. Install the windows noob Issuing CA Certificate on IssuingCA

Once again, add the PKI disk to the IssuingCA virtual machine, and take it Online in Disk Management.

Ensure you are logged on to IssuingCA as windowsnoob\EntAdmin. Next, open the Certification Authority console (CertSrv.msc) and in the Certification Authority console tree, right-click windows noob Issuing CA, and then click Install CA Certificate.

certsrv on issuingca.png

In the Select file to complete CA installation, navigate to your removable media (PKI disk). Ensure that you are displaying All Files (*.*) and click the IssuingCA.windowsnoob.lab.local_windowsnoob-ISSUINGCA-CA.rsp, (response file), click Open.

The CertSrv console will reload itself. Next, In the console tree, right-click windows noob  Issuing CA, click All Tasks, and then click Start Service.

start service.png

In the console tree, expand windows noob Issuing CA and then click Certificate Templates. Notice there are no certificates shown in the details pane. This is because the CAPolicy.inf specified not to install the default templates in the line LoadDefaultTemplates=0.

certificate templates blank.png

Next, take the PKI disk offline in Disk Management on the IssuingCA

set offline.png

and finally, Remove the PKI disk from the IssuingCA virtual machine using the GUI settings or use the PowerShell commands shown earlier to do it.

 

That's all for this Part, phew...

Please join me in Part 6 when you will perform post installation tasks on the Subordinate Issuing CA.

Recommended reading

(1) - https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/56b78004-40d0-41cf-b95e-6e795b2e8a06#content

(2) - http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/windows/desktop/ms677621.aspx

 

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Hi! Great work! However, I have two questions:

  • The OID thing: why or for what reason is this necessary? I never heard before. What if I use the standard OID?
  • Quote

    URL=http://pki.windows-noob.com/cps.txt

    What is the cps.txt file for? What's the content of this file? I read all of your instructions twice but this file only appears here.

Can you explain this in a little more detail, please! Thank you very much!

 

...Dietmar

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I hope it's ok if I answer my question on my own for all who read this post. On friday I registered on IANA a private enterprise number (pen).
You can do this here: https://pen.iana.org/pen/PenApplication.page
It's absolutly for free. I received my number for "Einfaches Netzwerk" a few hours later via e-mail.
After a day or so you can find your number on a really hugh list here:  https://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers/enterprise-numbers.
Mine looks like this

image.png.7550b86d8ddc77460ec0e9f6341f2d87.png
 

Now I am able to build my own OID with the prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprise (1.3.6.1.4.1) > 1.3.6.1.4.1.52765 (the prefix is listed on the site above on the top).
Behind this OID you can add additional nubmers according to your 
certification policy statement (cps.txt). For example:

  • 1.3.6.1.4.1.52765.1.1 > Client certificates
  • 1.3.6.1.4.1.52765.1.2 > Server certificates
  • 1.3.6.1.4.1.52765.1.3 > EFS and so on.

You can find a cps template here: https://www.globalsign.com/en/repository/TrustedRoot Template CPS.pdf

You only need a public OID if your organization plans with other organzations to use PKI-enabled applications. It this case you need an OID which is unique on the internet.

 

...Dietmar

  • Thanks 1

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thanks for sharing that info Dietmar !

 

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